A list of fallacies and biases
March 3, 2015
I intend do fill this list with fallacies that we encounter in our every day lives. With the hope that it helps us to not fall or make some one fall in fallacious words.
Automation bias is the propensity for humans to favor suggestions from automated decision making systems and to ignore contradictory information made without automation, even if it is correct. This bias takes the form of errors of exclusion and inclusion: an automation bias of exclusion takes place when humans rely on an automated system that does not inform them of a problem, while an error of inclusion arises when humans make choices based on incorrect suggestions relayed by automated systems.
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher’s cognitive bias causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of an experiment. Confirmation bias can lead to the experimenter interpreting results incorrectly because of the tendency to look for information that conforms to their hypothesis, and overlook information that argues against it.It is a significant threat to a studies internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design. An example of the observer-expectancy effect is demonstrated in music back masking, in which hidden verbal messages are said to be audible when a recording is played backwards. Some people expect to hear hidden messages when reversing songs, and therefore hear the messages, but to others it sounds like nothing more than random sounds. Often when a song is played backwards, a listener will fail to notice the “hidden” lyrics until they are explicitly pointed out, after which they are obvious. Other prominent examples include facilitated communication and dowsing.
When you don’t now if the statement you want to test originated the result or the result is generated by other factor previously established. <!!– Ad nauseam –>